Inflammatory Prevalence


In this project, we asked raters from different languages to go out and find inflammatory content on Facebook.

The red boxes display the inflammatory posts they found. Below are explanations of why they considered the posts inflammatory. (We didn't have a specific definition of “inflammatory”, so we let raters use their own judgment.)


Inflammatory English


Bunch of POS losers they oughta just shoot em, smfh!!!!

This person wants the Christopher Columbus protesters shot and killed. They are using toxic language to call them names also.

Open fire

This post is calling for violence against protesters.

.I'm halfway between confused and amused that there are still people screaming about needing their guns rights to defend themselves against tyranny and yet... none of them have tried dropping the tyrant in office. You know, the one wrecking your economy, removing all the protections on your environment, your water. The one who's empowered a "police" force to detain whomever they want. Has built concentration camps and is allowing them to develop plagues and let children die. Remember that guy? The with a whole agency at their disposal who doesn't care if you can prove your citizenship or what papers you carry on you. They can pull you from your home, your church, your work, whenever they want. And if they don't want to keep you locked up they can best guess and ship you off wherever they want. This is your moment you've been bitching about since Columbine. So, have at. Go use your NRA approved guns and go take out the tyrant that's selling you out for a quick buck in honor of his heroes, the other tyrants, communists and facists in power. Go forth and put thine money where thine mouth is.

This post is in favor of assassination of Trump. It encourages people to take their NRA-approved guns to take out Trump and gives reasons for why Trump is bad.

This is the remedy for BLM AND ANTIFA We must defend our country against idiots who seek to destroy her.... ARM UP AND DON’T BE AFRAID TO TAKE A STAND AND SHOOT

This post literally encourages people to use guns to shoot BLM and antifa supporters. Guns are used in the photo

Steve Moody Who ever wrote this artlcle eat shit and die and I mean that with the utmost disrespect to you. Dunb uneducated communist

The comment wrote the above statement in a response to a pizza place calling for the removal of a Confederate statue. While he is free to disagree with the timing, method, or manner of the suggestion, wishing death upon anyone is unwarranted (even if in a hyperbolic manner).

They should come up here in the woods, we could show these idiots a thing or two they have never seen before😎 Idiots thats all they are!! And most could not beat the shit out of their own shorts!!

Post calls for violence; also makes use of petty insults.

Raymond Biles We're all need to ban together to fight this influx of communist ideologies. If we have to spill their blood , so be it.

The comment author responds to a TMZ report of a vigilante with gun shooting two protesters in Kenosha with words that are both toxic and inflammatory to the reader because he calls for the spilling of blood and dispensing increasing levels of violence to deal with violence.

Indigenous People’s Day ✊🏽✊🏽 fuck Columbus, fuck Trump, fuck Trudeau and fuck Legault!! #indigenouspeoplesday #fuckcolumbusday

They are using vulgar language towards the president and other leaders. The use of cursing is very toxic.

I’d like to open an investigation into Ron Judd. Investigate his taxes, his love life, check his texts, phone records etc. Post whatever you find interesting and make it public. We need to know what kind of “journalist” we’re listening to.

Suggesting the author of a published piece be doxxed, and that there would be reason to be suspicious of him for criminal reasons. This is a reputational attack.

John Wright Round them all up and gas em. Hanging to good for these. Choking on fumes by just right. And only thing they get to see before they croak. It sight of Rebel flag flying high

The user comments on the alleged desecration of a cemetery that honors fallen Confederate soldiers by people the commenter assumes to have been supporters of the Black Lives Matter movement. The report doesn't come from a credible, reputable, source and yet he evokes the imagery of horrific acts done in the past by proponents of slavery which included hanging and being gassed to death as things that should be done against their perceived opponents.

Kevin Wells How disgusting to see what this country has running it and the thought process of those people. DemocRATS are pathetic.

Toxic comment about Democrats, questions thought process and says they are pathetic. Refers to Democrats as DemocRATS

Anybody that knows me knows I HATE Trump, but I’m not stupid either look I hate to be this way, but if you're a Democrat or you're going to vote for Joe Biden please unfriend me immediately..and never contact me again🙃🤣😂🤣😂🤣😂🤣😂🤣😂🤣😂... That presidential debate last night I swear 😂😂😂😂 come on you guys really think Joe Biden is not a puppet and is not being controlled you are the dumbest human being on the planet Joe Biden is the Antichrist of America if he becomes president I might actually kill myself😁😁😁 or move to Canada let Trump finish his 4 years and get the hell out of the way #FuckBiden #MAGA2020 #IHateTrumpToo #TheseCanidatesSuck #EditedAndReposted

This post contains lots of personal insults against Joe Biden and any of his supporters. She also includes a reference to suicide which is why I marked it as inflammatory, it could spark suicide idealization.

Time to crack some skulls

This is a suggestion of physical harm towards protestors.

Trash ass fucking dude right there #fuckbiden #Trump2020 #4moreyears

This post contains personal insults against a presidential nominee. There is also a picture attached of a person giving the middle finger over Joe Biden's face on a television.

Fuck you, pigs...I hope they fucking die.” THIS is the BLM. THIS is what's at stake November 3rd.

Using language that is very toxic and wishing death on others. This is very toxic and can cause people to hurt others.

So really, if someone is being an asshole, shoot me a message like this. I can generally find them, and if they shouldn’t be here, gladly remove the trash.

The author of the post name calls people who are against him, but also threatens physical violence.

Every single one of those travelling protesters should be rounded up and made an example of. If they wanna take lobbyist money and be domestic terrorists then show them terror. They deserve to rot in cells or be hung in the streets. Black masked cowards. Liberalism is a disease of brainwashed children.

Calling for extreme violence, toxic comments.

Wait, I thought the BLM movement was “peaceful”? Not. This is EXACTLY WHY we took up arms and defended our little town, Snohomish three weeks back. For all you Democrat Socialists who are now attempting to paint us as extreme for doing so, you’re not fooling anyone. Your gig is up.

This suggests taking up arms to intimidate BLM is acceptable. It suggests violence is not extreme.

Gunpowder & Lead The same people who want to protect kids from guns...are the same ones who won’t protect them from pedophiles

It likely references the right wing conspiracy theory about democrats being pedophiles and encourages readers to kill the democrats

Valentine Urbaniak I’ve been saying it all along send in the hueys and clean up the blood and brain matter later

In this tweet the user calls the user implies that violence should be met with more violence, through the use of words like blood and brain matter he insinuates that forces coming to deal with the uproar should kill on site.

Do you think there will be a civil war in 2020-2021?

This is inflammatory due to the high controversy and components involved, e.g. race, politics, etc. along with attacks within the post comments. While phrased as a question, it seems intended to incite a civil war.

Keep believing your 'polls' 🤣😂🤣😂 stupid Democrats using the same playbook as 2016!!!! Just say no to #JimCrowJoe #ChomoJoe #DementiaJoe #CommieJoe #ChinaJoe #LieingJoe #PotatoeJoe and his racist nanny Kamala

The poster is slinging all sorts of accusations at Biden with those hashtags. This plus calling democrats "stupid" makes it a sociopolitical attack.

Just boot fuck em til they stop

Calling for violence.

Democrats and other liberals have had their way far too long, now it's ending and they don't like it lol... Nothing funnier than crying, whining, pouting liberals, nothing!

This person is saying so derogatory things about all democrats. They are calling them whiny and pouty.

Words cannot describe what I would do with this guy. But I guarantee you by the end he would be saying all Lives matter before he took his last breath

The author is (not so) subtly describing murderous intent.

Anyone who doesn’t vote blue should be imprisoned for disloyalty to the nation. No more guns, no more freedom of speech. If you are a conservative you will be jailed when Biden is president! Comrade Biden will start the regime the country needs. Proud communist!

This comment is toxic and inflammatory because it threatens the safety of others if they do not vote a certain way. They are going on the attack.

Valerie Sandstrom Dimick They condemn the Confederacy for warring against the union. However the Confederacy had a right to do what they were doing and were fighting tyrants. Now they support the socialists, marxists rioting against the union. Interesting right? The reason they lie,twist and hate or attempt to destroy all things about the south and Confederacy is because they rose up and did what the founders said to when faced with a tyrannical government in DC

The comment is toxic because the author characterizes the civil war in a way that goes against known facts such as the fight for the abolition or continuation of slavery and the political and economic ramifications owing to either outcome. The author says the south was fighting against a tyrannical government yet doesn't acknowledge the south's insistence on preserving the subjugation of minorities.